Space for Maritime Task Force Launched

The “Space for Maritime Task Force” was recently launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) together with maritime stakeholders at the Italian Coast Guard Headquarters in Rome. The initiative acts on ESA’s vision to boost digital and green solutions, reducing emissions and enabling sustainable innovation.

In recent years, ESA Space Solutions has been cooperating with key stakeholders in the maritime sector via the Business Applications and Space Solutions (BASS) programme. These include a wide range of user communities and classes such as fisheries, coast guards, port authorities, military bodies, shipping companies, commercial operators, and international, national and European institutions. Through this cooperation, ESA has built strategic partnerships and supported several initiatives addressing domains such as maritime sustainability, ship tracking via satellite-based automatic identification systems (AIS), smart routing, autonomous vessels, water quality monitoring, the reduction of marine pollution and the green transition of ports’ eco-systems.

The Italian General Command of the Port Authority Corps - Coast Guard has, for some months, been working on a collaboration with ESA to foresee and enhance the use of space applications aimed at promoting sustainable innovation and transport in the maritime ecosystem. This collaboration has resulted in the creation of a standing committee, called the Space for Maritime Task Force (SMTF).

The Task Force aims to contribute to sustainability and maritime safety by increasing the use of innovative integrated solutions that exploit digital and space technologies, such as communications, navigation, and earth observation. This initiative will leverage active involvement of national institutions, Industry and research entities in the digital transformation of port and maritime services (e-Navigation), with a view to enhancing the sustainability of maritime transport. It will foster the innovative use of space technologies for supporting the shipping sector, for example in its transition to uncrewed shipping, as well as the implementation of a safe integration of uncrewed vessels within maritime transport provision, the monitoring of coastal areas and infrastructures, and maritime surveillance activity (in the domains of safety, security, fishing and the environment). The work will be divided into sub-topics of interest, which for the moment include "maritime sustainability", "green and smart ports" and "safety at sea and maritime security".

The results from the Task Force will be presented to international (International Maritime Organization - IMO) and European bodies, in order to contribute to the development and standardisation of requirements and innovative technologies aimed at improving maritime services. This will allow sustainable economic growth for all players involved. Rita Rinaldo, Head of the Projects & Studies Implementation Division at ESA Space Solutions commented “Collaboration with maritime stakeholders is key for ESA to support innovative solutions that exploit digital and space technologies, and to enable European space and downstream companies to contribute to sustainability and maritime safety.”

Partners in the Task Force include: the General Command of the Port Authority Corps - Coast Guard; European Space Agency (ESA); Italian Space Agency (ASI); National Inter-University Consortium for Telecommunications (CNIT); and the Directorate General for the Supervision of Port System Authorities, Maritime Transport and Inland Waterways.

Your latest issue of Critical Infrastructure Protection & Resilience News has arrived

Please find here your downloadable copy of the Winter 2022-23 issue of Critical Infrastructure Protection & Resilience News for the latest views and news at www.cip-association.org/CIPRNews.

- A Standard to help protect Critical Infrastructure
- Government and Industry Cooperation: More Important Than Ever for Cybersecurity Awareness
- Help2Protect: an eLearning program to counter Insider Threats
- Testing Environments Help S&T and CISA Secure Transportation Infrastructure
- Can responsible AI guidelines keep up with the technology?
- Infrastructure Resilience Planning Framework (IRPF)
- An Interview with Port of New Orleans
- Critical Infrastructure Protection & Resilience North America Preview
- Industry and Agency Reports and News

Download your Critical Infrastructure Protection & Resilience News at www.cip-association.org/CIPRNews

Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience News is the official magazine of the International Association of Critical Infrastructure Protection Professionals (IACIPP), a non-profit organisation that provides a platform for sharing good practices, innovation and insights from Industry leaders and operators alongside academia and government and law enforcement agencies.

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CIPRNA Update Conference Agenda

Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience North America will be held in Baton Rouge on 7th-9th March 2023, supported by IACIPP and Infragard Louisiana.

A fanstastic conference agenda addressing some of the big challenges facing CI operator/owners, government, agencies and the broader CI community.

A range of Workshops and Mini-Symposiums help drill deeper into specific sector challenges.

Download the latest CIPRNA agenda at www.ciprna-expo.com/PSG.

Register online at www.ciprna-expo.com/onlinereg

#criticalinfrastructure #criticalinfrastructureprotection #emergencymanagement #cisa #fema #tsa #emergencyresponse #disasterriskreduction #transportsecurity #energysecurity #telecomssecurity #cbrne #cybersecurity #security

Large Constellations of Satellites: Mitigating Environmental and Other Effects

There are almost 5,500 active satellites in orbit as of spring 2022, and one estimate predicts the launch of an additional 58,000 by 2030. Large constellations of satellites in low Earth orbit are the primary drivers of the increase. Satellites provide important services, but there are potential environmental and other effects that this trend could produce (see figure).

Potential effects from the launch, operation, and disposal of satellites

For decades, satellites have been used for GPS, communications, and remote sensing. The number of satellites has recently increased, as thousands more have been launched to provide internet access.

But this increase may be disruptive. For example, it could lead to more space debris, which can damage existing satellites used for commerce or national security. We reviewed technologies and other tools to lessen potential effects. We also looked at mitigation challenges, like unclear rules and immature technology. To help address the challenges, we developed policy options, which may help policymakers achieve a variety of goals.

GAO assessed technologies and approaches to evaluate and mitigate the following potential effects:

- Increase in orbital debris. Debris in space can damage or destroy satellites, affecting commercial services, scientific observation, and national security. Better characterizing debris, increasing adherence to operational guidelines, and removing debris are among the possible mitigations, but achieving these is challenging.
- Emissions into the upper atmosphere. Rocket launches and satellite reentries produce particles and gases that can affect atmospheric temperatures and deplete the ozone layer. Limiting use of rocket engines that produce certain harmful emissions could mitigate the effects. However, the size and significance of these effects are poorly understood due to a lack of observational data, and it is not yet clear if mitigation is warranted.
- Disruption of astronomy. Satellites can reflect sunlight and transmit radio signals that obstruct observations of natural phenomena. Satellite operators and astronomers are beginning to explore ways of mitigating these effects with technologies to darken satellites, and with tools to help astronomers avoid or filter out light reflections or radio transmissions. However, the efficacy of these techniques remains in question, and astronomers need more data about the satellites to improve mitigations.

GAO developed the following policy options to help address challenges with evaluating and mitigating the effects of large constellations of satellites. GAO developed the options by reviewing literature and documents, conducting interviews, and convening a 2-day meeting with 15 experts from government, industry, and academia. These policy options are not recommendations. GAO presents them to help policymakers consider and choose options appropriate to the goals they hope to achieve. Policymakers may include legislative bodies, government agencies, standards-setting organizations, industry, and other groups.

Policymakers may be better positioned to take action on this complex issue if they consider interrelationships among these policy options. For example, implementing the fourth option (improving organization and leadership) may improve policymakers’ ability to implement the first and second options (building knowledge, developing technologies, and improving data sharing). Similarly, implementing the first option may help with the third option (establishing standards, regulations, and agreements). More generally, trade-offs between mitigations may emerge, the ongoing increase in new constellations may introduce unexpected changes, and a large and diverse set of interests from the global community may shift over time, all of which present persistent uncertainties. To address these complexities and uncertainties, the full report presents the policy options in a framework, which may help policymakers strategically choose options to both realize the benefits and mitigate the potential effects of large constellations of satellites.

Enabled by declines in the costs of satellites and rocket launches, commercial enterprises are deploying large constellations of satellites into low Earth orbit. Satellites provide important data and services, such as communications, internet access, Earth observation, and technologies like GPS that provide positioning, navigation, and timing. However, the launch, operation, and disposal of an increasing number of satellites could cause or increase several potential effects.

This report discusses (1) the potential environmental or other effects of large constellations of satellites; (2) the current or emerging technologies and approaches to evaluate or mitigate these effects, along with challenges to developing or implementing these technologies and approaches; and (3) policy options that might help address these challenges.

To conduct this technology assessment, GAO reviewed technical studies, agency documents, and other key reports; interviewed government officials, industry representatives, and researchers; and convened a 2-day meeting of 15 experts from government, industry, academia, and a federally funded research and development center. GAO is identifying policy options in this report.

Australian Government Invites Feedback on Critical Technologies

The Australian Federal Government will begin consulting businesses, researchers and the community at large to identify critical technologies of national importance.

The List of Critical Technologies in the National Interest will clarify technologies the government considers to be vital to present and future demands.

The 2022 List of Critical Technologies in the National Interest will build on the 2021 List, which featured 63 technologies across seven categories including:

- Advanced materials and manufacturing
- AI, computing and communications
- Biotechnology, gene technology and vaccines
- Energy and environment
- Quantum; Sensing, timing and navigation
- Transportation, robotics and space

The consultation will run until Friday 30 September.

Federal Minister for Industry and Science, Ed Husic, said it is vital for Australia’s continued and future prosperity that emerging and critical technologies are promoted and protected.

“We know the development of critical technologies present enormous potential opportunities as well as risks for Australians,” Mr Husic said.

“It is vital we understand and send a clear signal about what technologies we should be focusing on and where our strengths lie – and that is exactly what this consultation is all about.”

The Federal Government has promised to invest $1 billion into critical technologies through its National Reconstruction Fund and will aim to reach 1.2 million tech industry jobs by 2030.

“This work is also part of our goal to reach 1.2 million tech jobs by 2030, as well as securing our supply chains and promoting Australia as a secure destination of excellence for investment, development and adoption of critical technologies,” Mr Husic said.

“The Government is also investing $1 billion in critical technologies as part of the National Reconstruction Fund, to build our strategic capability and power the economic growth we need to create jobs.”

ESA-backed project supports oil and gas safety by keeping an eye on the ground

Oil and gas supplies are dependent on multiple factors, including the stability of the ground wherever oil or gas is being stored or transported. In March 2021, LiveEO started assessment and development of an end-to-end solution for monitoring ground deformation for the entire value chain of the industry, based on interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) satellite data combined with artificial intelligence (AI). The aim was to help the industry ensure safety across its assets by providing an early warning system that could inform maintenance or safety actions.
Providing actionable insights

Founded in 2017, LiveEO has a background in using Earth observation (EO) data to provide a range of services to operators of large-scale infrastructure, such as railways, electricity grids and pipelines. It combines data analysis with risk analysis to create actionable insights on aspects such as vegetation management, detection of construction activity and ground deformation monitoring — all of which present challenges for reasons that include climate change and environmental factors.

With this Kick-Start activity, co-funded by ESA, LiveEO’s team used its experience in servicing pipeline customers to explore the feasibility of a holistic, end-to-end solution for ground deformation monitoring. The investigation included risk models that quantify the risk to specific assets resulting from ground deformation and how the insights could be delivered to customers and integrated into their processes to create automatic triggers.

The LiveEO team analysed the opportunities through surveys of more than 50 companies and countries, including existing clients in the pipeline industry, as well as researching the broader landscape. Initial data came from Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, which will be enriched by higher resolution StripMap and SpotLight SAR imagery from Capella Space or ICEYE satellites to investigate any anomalies that have been detected.

Sven Przywarra, the Co-CEO and co-founder of LiveEO said: “The Kick-Start activity enabled LiveEO to validate a business case in a unique setting, and also created an environment that allowed our business development team to take the right steps from a business idea to product development. The combination of guidance, support and clear goal setting from ESA was greatly appreciated, because it gave us the entrepreneurial freedom necessary for the exploration of new ideas paired with acquiring a depth of knowledge similar to a classic research project."
The increasing need for ground deformation insights

The requirement for such insights results from an increasing number of oil wells, pipelines, storage facilities and other oil and gas related infrastructure exceeding their original lifespans. This is leading to more complex maintenance for operators and increased risks that impact both the industry itself and the surrounding environment and communities. One of the major sources of risk is ground deformation due to industrial operations or natural seismic activity. Where infrastructure and assets span large areas, these risks can be very difficult to measure and dangerous trends can go undetected.

Traditional monitoring methods, such as land surveying or sensors and drones, can only give a partial picture. Satellites enable monitoring of deformation trends across entire countries with weekly update intervals — something that would be prohibitively expensive or even impossible via other means. InSAR data delivers deformation values at individual pixel levels, allowing the identification of trends over long periods of time; this can be supplemented with historical data.

The company is currently developing the AI side of the project, with the aim of completing development by the end of 2022. The plan is then to undertake a demonstration project and have a marketable subscription service ready by the end of the following year.

Critical Infrastructure Protection: Agencies Need to Assess Adoption of Cybersecurity Guidance

Federal agencies with a lead role to assist and protect one or more of the nation's 16 critical infrastructures are referred to as sector risk management agencies (SRMAs). The SRMAs for three of the 16 have determined the extent of their sector's adoption of the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity (framework). In doing so, lead agencies took actions such as developing sector surveys and conducting technical assessments mapped to framework elements. SRMAs for four sectors have taken initial steps to determine adoption (see figure). However, lead agencies for nine sectors have not taken steps to determine framework adoption.

Status of Framework Adoption by Critical Infrastructure Sector

Regarding improvements resulting from sector-wide use, five of the 16 critical infrastructure sectors' SRMAs have identified or taken steps to identify sector-wide improvements from framework use, as GAO previously recommended. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency identified an approximately 32 percent overall increase in the use of framework-recommended cybersecurity controls among the 146 water utilities that requested and received voluntary technical assessments. In addition, SRMAs for the government facilities sector identified improvements in cybersecurity performance metrics and information standardization resulting from federal agencies' use of the framework. However, SRMAs for the remaining 11 sectors did not identify improvements and were not able to describe potential successes from their sectors' use of the framework.

SRMAs reported various challenges to determining framework adoption and identifying sector-wide improvements. For example, they noted limitations in knowledge and skills to implement the framework, the voluntary nature of the framework, other priorities that may take precedence over framework adoption, and the difficulty of developing precise measurements of improvement were challenges to measuring adoption and improvements. To help address challenges, NIST launched an information security measurement program in September 2020 and the Department of Homeland Security has an information network that enables sectors to share best practices. Implementing GAO's prior recommendations on framework adoption and improvements are key factors that can lead to sectors pursuing further protection against cybersecurity threats.

The U.S. has 16 critical infrastructure sectors that provide clean water, gas, banking, and other essential services. To help protect them, in 2014 the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed cybersecurity standards and procedures that organizations within these sectors may voluntarily use. Federal agencies are charged with leading efforts to improve sector security.

The GAO have found agencies have measured the adoption of these standards and procedures for 3 of 16 sectors and have identified improvements across 2 sectors. For example, the EPA found a 32% increase in the use of recommended cybersecurity controls at 146 water utilities.

ESA and PSCE cooperate on Space Applications and Digital Transformation in Public Safety

The European Space Agency (ESA) and Public Safety Communication Europe (PSCE) are working together to support the emergence of space-based applications in the domain of public safety. Having jointly signed a Memorandum of Intent (MoI), the organisations will join efforts to support the emergence of applications that leverage on secure satellite communications for addressing the needs of blue forces. ESA will launch a funding call early in 2022 to invite companies to develop and demonstrate digital services that are enabled by secure satcom solutions for addressing the urgent needs of public safety operators.

Security in space and on Earth are inextricably linked. The deployment of advanced satellite systems and their safe circulation in space are crucial for resilient and secure connectivity on Earth. As set out in its recently released vision for European space activities, ESA is stepping up its efforts to enable Europe to address new safety and security user needs to make sure that our space programmes continue to be at the service of all citizens through Agenda 2025. ESA's Strategic Programme Line “Space Systems for Safety and Security (4S)” combines both to include applications within disaster preparedness, response and resilience, situational awareness, assessments of damages, navigation-based services for tracking and coordinating rescue forces on-site and for emergency vehicles.

Through its ARTES (Advanced Research in Telecommunications Systems) programme, ESA is forging strong links between institutions, industries, and business to leverage the capabilities of space to drive digital services.

“I’m pleased to be working with PSCE to realise the potential of space to drive commercial solutions for secure satellite communication in public safety. This is a great example on how ESA is promoting the use of space technologies and applications to address safety and security needs expressed by the organisations operating in this domain. This collaboration will pave the way to the ESA Rapid and Resilient Crisis Response (R3) Accelerator,“ says Rita Rinaldo, Head of the Partner-led and Thematic Initiatives Section, ESA Space Solutions.

ESA and the City of Essen collaborate to protect urban and suburban areas with the power of space-applications

The City of Essen and the European Space Agency (ESA) are cooperating to promote the development of space-applications in support of the development and the protection of urban environments in a sustainable manner. As a priority within the sustainable urban development, the focus will be on the natural green protection in urban and suburban areas, climate change challenges, biodiversity protection, sustainable urban mobility, circular economy, and support of growth of a sustainable green and digital economy by leveraging satellite and terrestrial networks.

The first joint initiative that has been launched through this cooperation is an Invitation To Tender for companies to propose space-based applications which can contribute to whether and to what extent green spaces can be effectively integrated into smart city planning and urban green management, be monitored regarding their status and their impact on the surroundings and preserved as natural capital to maximise benefits for all citizens. The City of Essen has been crucial for the definition of the key application areas.

The Lord Mayor of the City of Essen, Thomas Kufen, is looking forward to the cooperation and the opportunities it entails: “Urban green infrastructure improves water management during extreme precipitation events, has a positive impact on air quality, mitigates extreme summer temperatures, and provides recreational spaces. In times of climate change it is more important than ever in context of urban development, which must be rethought in a global context. The services developed with ESA will help us to observe, understand and sustainably adapt our local environment and its interdependencies.“

Rita Rinaldo, Head of the Partner/Thematic led Initiative of Space Solutions Programme in ESA, added: “working with the City of Essen gives us the opportunity to foster the development of space applications with the aim of making our cities greener, while boosting sustainability and infrastructure, protecting the environment and creating shared value for citizens. We are confident that this cooperation will showcase the potential of space to deliver green value thanks to innovative space-based solutions with environmental and socio-economic benefits at scale.”

AIAA and the Space Information Sharing and Analysis Center (Space ISAC) Enter Cooperative Agreement

The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the Space Information Sharing and Analysis Center (Space ISAC) have entered into a Memorandum of Agreement (MOU) enabling the two organizations to collaborate on aerospace and space cybersecurity endeavors. The two organizations will cooperate to build the knowledge foundations of space cybersecurity. The Space ISAC brings cybersecurity situational awareness and operational excellence and AIAA offers its long history of convening and promoting aerospace expertise, knowledge, and leadership.
“AIAA is committed to bringing cyber protection to the heart of the aerospace industry. It is becoming more and more essential to address cybersecurity on an ongoing basis in the mainstream of our core processes – from the design and development of new space systems, to manufacturing and production, to operations,” said Dan Dumbacher, executive director of AIAA. “We look forward to our continued work with the Space ISAC, to use its frontline role in the cyber defense of aerospace to foster open dialogue and cooperation around this topic.”
The Space ISAC facilitates collaboration across the global space industry to prepare for and respond to vulnerabilities, incidents, and threats; to disseminate timely and actionable information among member entities; and to serve as the primary communications channel for the sector with respect to this information. Space ISAC is the only all-threats security information source for the public and private space sector. It will be the most comprehensive, single point source for data, facts and analysis on space security and threats to space assets. Space ISAC will also provide analysis and resources to support response, mitigation, and resilience initiatives.
Erin Miller, Space ISAC Executive Director, commented, “Space ISAC and AIAA coming together in partnership is a wonderful complement. Our initial collaboration efforts began in 2020 on the first ever ISAC-led tabletop exercise for the space sector. We are formalizing our partnership now and anticipate the impact will be seen through efforts in workforce development, education, space sector cybersecurity awareness, and more.”
The two organizations have already begun collaborating. In 2020, the Space ISAC staged a cybersecurity tabletop exercise for space industry executives at AIAA’s ASCEND event, a global gathering of 3,000 aerospace professionals and others who are focused on accelerating our off-world future faster. Both organizations also value the importance of infusing the  global space industry with content to educate industry professionals and students and will identify opportunities to leverage AIAA’s extensive educator outreach programs.
“Digital technology has made aerospace safer, smarter, and more connected than ever. We must now establish cybersecurity as a priority on par with safety. We look forward to working with the Space ISAC to expand cybersecurity awareness throughout the aerospace community and supply chain,” Dumbacher concluded.
Through the MOU, the Space ISAC and AIAA intend to cooperate on learning opportunities and explore other areas of mutual concern.
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